Family Health

Vaccinations

Child and  Adult Vaccinations

2 months:

  • 5-in-1 (DTaP/IPV/Hib). This single jab contains vaccines to protect against five separate diseases – diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis ( whooping cough), polio and Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib, a bacterial infection that can cause severe pneumonia or meningitis in young children).
  • Pneumococcal infection

3 months:

4 months:

Between 12 and 13 months:

3 years and 4 months, or soon after:

Around 12-13 years:

  • HPV vaccine, which protects against cervical cancer (girls only): three jabs given within six months

Around 13-18 years:

  • 3-in-1 teenage booster(Td/IPV). Given as a single jab which contains vaccines against diphtheria, tetanus and polio

65 and over:

Vaccines for risk groups

People who fall into certain risk groups may be offered extra vaccines. These include vaccinations against diseases such as hepatitis Btuberculosis (TB), flu and chickenpox. See our sections on vaccines for adults to find out whether you should have one.

Travel and other vaccines

There are also optional vaccines that you may be able to have free on the NHS from your local surgery, including travel vaccinations, such as hepatitis Atyphoid and cholera. See our sections on travel vaccines to find out more about whether you should have one.

If you’re not sure whether you or your child have had all your vaccinations, ask your GP or practice nurse.

NHS childhood illness slideshow

Fevers

Most symptoms of a fever in young children can be managed at home with infant paracetamol. If the fever is very high, they may have an infection that needs treating with antibiotics.

  • Bupa – more about childhood fevers
  • NHS Choices – what temperature is a fever?

Head Lice

Head lice are insects that live on the scalp and neck. They may make your head feel itchy. Although head lice may be embarrassing and sometimes uncomfortable, they don’t usually cause illness. However, they won’t clear up on their own and you need to treat them promptly.

Nosebleeds

Nosebleeds (also known as epistaxis) are fairly common, especially in children, and can generally be easily treated.

Mens’ Health

Five health symptoms men should not ignore:

“British men are paying the price for neglecting their health: more than 100,000 men a year die prematurely.

On average, men go to their GP half as often as women. It’s important to be aware of changes to your health and to see your GP immediately if you notice something that’s not right. “Find out more”

Prostate Cancer

Each year about 36,000 men in the UK is diagnosed with prostate cancer, making it the most common cancer in men. It mainly affects men aged over 50.

Symptoms

  • Difficulty in starting to pass urine
  • A weak, sometimes intermittent flow of urine
  • Dribbling of urine before and after urinating
  • A frequent or urgent need to pass urine
  • Rarely, blood in your urine or semen and pain when passing urine

These symptoms aren’t always caused by prostate cancer but if you have them see your GP.

Find out more about the symptoms, causes and diagnosis of prostate cancer by using the resources below.

Resources

Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer, though the most common cancer in young men, it is still quite rare. With 2000 new cases being diagnosed each year, this makes it the biggest cause of cancer-related death in 15 – 35-year-old males. It accounts for around 70 deaths a year in the UK alone.

What to Look Out For

The most common symptom of testicular cancer is swelling or a pea-sized lump in one of the testes (balls). There is no current screening test, therefore, it is important that you look out for the following signs and symptoms.

  • A dull ache, or sharp pain, in your testicles, or scrotum, which may come and go
  • A feeling of heaviness in your scrotum
  • A dull ache in your lower abdomen
  • A sudden collection of fluid in your scrotum
  • Fatigue and generally feeling unwell

Resources

NHS – Information on Testicular Cancer
BUPA – Testicular Cancer

Sexual Problems

It’s estimated that one man in 10 has a problem related to having sex, such as premature ejaculation or erectile dysfunction. Dr John Tomlinson of The Sexual Advice Association explains some of the causes, and where to seek help.

Find our more on NHS Choices

Womens’ Health

Cervical Screening (Smear Tests)

Cervical screening is a method of preventing cervical cancer by detecting abnormal cells in the cervix (lower part of the womb). Cervical screening is not a test for cancer, but it is a test to check the health of the cervix.

Most women’s test results show that everything is normal. But for one in 20 women, the test will show some changes in the cells of the cervix. Most of these changes will not lead to cervical cancer and the cells will go back to normal on their own. In some cases, the abnormal cells need to be treated to prevent them becoming a problem later.

NHS Choices – Cervical Screening

The why, when & how to guide to cervical screening

Cervical Screening

This factsheet is for women who would like information about having a cervical smear test for screening. This means having the test when you don’t have any symptoms.

HPV Vaccination

Since September 2008, there has been a national programme to vaccinate girls aged 12-13 against human papilloma – virus (HPV). There is also a three-year catch-up campaign that will offer the HPV vaccine (also known as the cervical cancer jab) to 13-18-year-old girls.

The programme is delivered largely through secondary schools and consists of three injections that are given over a six-month period. In the UK, more than 1.4 million doses have been given since the vaccination programme started.

What is Human papilloma virus (HPV)?

Human papilloma – virus (HPV) is the name of a family of viruses that affect the skin and the moist membranes that line your bodies, such as those in your cervix, anus, mouth and throat. These membranes are called the mucosa.

There are more than 100 different types of HPV viruses, with about 40 types affecting the genital area. These are classed as high risk and low risk.

How you get HPV?

Types of HPV that affect the skin can be passed on by skin contact with an affected person. The types of HPV that affect the mouth and throat can be passed on through kissing. Genital HPV is usually spread through intimate, skin to skin, contact during sex. You can have the genital HPV virus for years and not have any sign of it.

How can HPV cause cervical cancer?

Most HPV infections are harmless or cause genital warts; however some types can cause cervical cancer. Most HPV infections clear up by themselves, but in some people, the infection can last a long time. HPV infects the cells of the surface of the cervix where it can stay for many years without you knowing.

The HPV virus can damage these cells leading to changes in their appearance. Over time, these changes can develop into cervical cancer. The purpose of cervical screening (testing) is to detect these changes, which, if picked up early enough, can be treated to prevent cancer happening. If they are left untreated, cancer can develop and may lead to serious illness and death.

Cancer Research UK

HPV Facts and information
NHS Choices – HPV Vaccination, Why, how and when is the vaccination given and what are the side effects

HPV Vaccine

This factsheet is for people who would like information about the human papilloma – virus (HPV) vaccine.

Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the UK. About 46,000 women get breast cancer in the UK each year. Most of them (8 out of 10) are over 50, but younger women, and in rare cases men, can also get breast cancer.

The NHS Breast Screening Programme invites over 2 million women for screening every year and detects over 14,000 cancers. Dr Emma Pennery of Breast Cancer Care says Breast X-rays, called mammograms, can detect tumours at a very early stage before you’d feel a lump. The earlier it’s treated, the higher the survival rate.

Find out more about breast cancer screening

Macmillan Cancer Research

The causes and symptoms of breast cancer in women and explains how it is diagnosed and treated

NHS Choices

Symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, prevention & screening information

Decision Aids

Patient Decision Aids (PDAs) are designed to help patients make difficult decisions about their treatments and medical tests. They are used when there is no clinical evidence to suggest that one treatment is better than another and patients need help in deciding which option will be best for them.

NHS Choices Conditions and Treatments

See the NHS Choices Conditions and Treatments browser for an in-depth description of many common health issues.

Coronavirus (COVID-19)

 
NHS 111
Government Stay At Home Guidance
NHS Information Page